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India officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and the most populous liberal democracy in the world. India is a union of twenty-eight states and seven federally-governed union territories. New Delhi is the capital of India.
Vadodara also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is one of four towns in the state with a population of over 1 million, the other being Rajkot and the two cities listed above. It is located on the Vishwamitri river, southeast of Ahmedabad and is known as the Cultural Capital of Gujarat.
Vadodara is home to almost 1.729 million people as of 2005, the beautiful Lakshmi Vilas Palace and the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda which is famous for various departments, including the fine arts, performing arts, technology and medicine streams. It has a high literacy rate by Indian standards of 78 percent. Major industries include petrochemicals, engineering, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. Vadodara had a population of 1,306,035.
Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha leader Pilaji Gaekwad conquered the city from the Mughal Empire in 1721. The Gaekwads were granted the city as a fief by the Peshwa, the nominal leader of the Maratha Empire. After the Maratha defeat by the Afghans at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, control of the further regions of the empire by the Peshwas weakened, and the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled Baroda until Indian independence. In 1802, the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had recently inherited the throne from rival claimants, and Vadodara concluded a treaty with the British that recognized their independence from the Maratha empire, and guaranteed the Maharajas of Baroda local autonomy in return for recognizing British sovereignty.

Vadodara is also known as Sanskari Nagari, means a Cultured City. Vadodara is one of India’s most cosmopolitan cities. Thanks to the vision and broadmindedness of the Gaekwads, the subsequent industrialisation, the proliferation of academic activities and a strategically important geographical location, Baroda has welcomed a wide variety of people from all over India and also from all over the world. In all of this, the sprawling and cosmopolitan MS University campus and the large number of local, national and foreign industries act as a catalysing and unifying force.

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